- Mussawi

In 1956, all identity cards for Syrian Jews are stamped with a red line, the beginning of the Mussawi stamp. Jews are forbidden to listen to Israeli radio, and can no longer obtain passports, even for money. Any violation of the restrictions means arrest, even torture, at the hands of the secret police.

“One of the major things which happened in your ID card, they stamp it in red in very big letters, from edge to edge in the word Musawi, which is belongs to our prophet Moses. You are not allowed let’s say to buy and sell properties. To import and export are very difficult.” – Albert Nasiri, Episode 6

(Image of a Syrian ID with Mussawi stamp.)

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